Ancient Star

Milky Way, Starry Sky, Night Sky, Star

As we gaze up at the night sky, while standing far from the interfering glare of bright city lights, we can see our Milky Way Galaxy stretching from horizon to horizon like a sparkling starlit grin –telling us that we are only a small part of something vast, ancient, and mysterious. Astronomers have long believed that our Galaxy is extremely old. Indeed, scientists have proposed that it may be almost as old as the Universe itself. In November 2018, astronomers with the Gemini Observatory announced they have discovered a tiny tattle-tale star that is likely the oldest known star dwelling in the disk of our Milky Way. Despite its unimpressive size, this diminutive star could play a significant role in our scientific knowledge of the true history and age of our Galaxy. The early star also sheds fresh light on the mysterious conditions that existed in the newborn Universe soon after its arrival in the Big Bang almost 14 billion years ago.

The Gemini Observatory is composed of twin 8.1-meter diameter optical/infrared telescopes that can together scan the entire sky. Gemini North and Gemini South are situated at two different locations in Hawaii and Chile, respectively.

The little tattle-tale celebrity has a very interesting story to tell. It’s old, small, and most importantly composed of components very similar to those that formed from the Big Bang. In order to host a star like this, the disk of our Milky Way might well be up to three billion years older than previously thought. Our Galaxy’s age was calculated to be roughly 13.51 billion years, while our Universe is believed to be roughly 13.8 billion years old.

“Our Sun likely descended from thousands of generations of short-lived massive stars that have lived and died since the Big Bang. However, what’s most interesting about this star is that it’d perhaps just one ancestor separating it and the beginnings of everything,” commented Dr. Kevin Schlaufman in a November 5, 2018 Gemini Observatory Press Release. Dr. Schlaufman is of Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, and lead author of this study published in the November 5, 2018 dilemma of The Astrophysical Journal.

The Big Bang theory suggests that the first generation of stars were composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium. The Big Bang birth of the Universe formed only the lightest of nuclear elements–hydrogen, helium, and small quantities of lithium (Big Bang Nucleosynthesis). All nuclear elements heavier than helium–termed metals by astronomers–were made by the stars in their nuclear-fusing furnaces (Stellar Nucleosynthesis). Alternatively, in the event of the heaviest atomic components of –such as gold and uranium–in the powerful and fiery supernovae blasts that heralded the explosive demise of massive stars (Supernova Nucleosynthess).

When celebrities perish, their leading material is recycled to be utilised in the creation of new baby stars. Newborn stars receive–as their heritage from earlier generations of stars–all the elder stars newly forged heavier atomic elements. The oxygen you breathe, the iron in your blood, the calcium in your bones, the sand beneath your feet, the water that you drink, were all formed in the nuclear-fusing hearts of the Universe’s myriad stars.

Astronomers refer to stars which are depleted of nuclear elements heavier than helium as low metallicity stars. “However, this one has such low metallicity it’s known as an ultra metal poor star–this star could be one in ten million,” Dr. Schlaufman continued to explain in the Gemini Observatory Press Release.

The birth of the first generation of stars is among the most fascinating mysteries haunting cosmologists. However, the first stars to form in the Universe were unlike the celebrities we know today. This is because they formed directly from the pristine primordial gases churned out in the Big Bang itself. These primordial gases were mostly hydrogen and helium, and these two lightest of atomic components are believed to have gravitationally pulled themselves together to form ever tighter and tighter knots. The cores of the first generation of protostars to emerge from our ancient Universe first caught fire within the mysterious dark and frigid hearts of these exceptionally cold dense knots of pristine ancient gases–that finally collapsed under their own relentless, heavy gravitational pull. The very first stars did not form the same manner or even from the same elements as celebrities do now. The first stars are known as Population III stars. Our own Sun is a part of the youngest stellar generation, and is classified as a Population I star. Sandwiched between the youngest and oldest stellar generations are the Population II stars.

It’s been proposed that the massive primordial Population III stars were brilliant, and their existence is regarded as responsible for causing the Universe to change from what it once was to what it now is. These cryptic, dazzling first celebrities altered the dynamics of the Universe by heating it up and ionizing the present gases.

The metallicity of a star refers to the fraction of its substance that’s made up of atomic elements–metals–which are heavier than hydrogen and helium. Stars account for nearly all of the nuclear (visible) thing in the Cosmos, being composed primarily of hydrogen and helium. A star, regardless of which of the three leading generations it belongs to, will be a gigantic roiling, searing-hot sphere composed mostly of hydrogen gas. The term metallic in astronomical jargon doesn’t mean the same thing that it does in chemistry. Metallic bonds cannot exist at the extremely hot cores of stars, and the strongest of chemical bonds are only possible from the outer layers of cool”failed stars” called brown dwarfs. Brown dwarfs might be born the same manner as true stars, but they never quite manage to attain the necessary mass to light their nuclear-fusing stellar fires.

The metallicity of a celebrity offers an important tool that astronomers use to ascertain a specific celebrity’s true age. When the Universe was born, its”ordinary” atomic matter was mostly hydrogen which, by way of the process of primordial nucleosynthesis, proceeded to create a large amount of helium along with much smaller quantities of beryllium and lithium–but nothing thicker. The expression nucleosynthesis itself is defined as the process by which heavier atomic elements are made out of lighter ones, as the result of nuclear fusion (the combination of atomic nuclei.

Therefore, the leading Populations I, II, and III, display an increasing metal content with decreasing age. Population I stars, such as our Sun, have the maximum metal content, while Population III stars are depleted of metals. Population II stars have only trace quantities of metals.

A Big Starlit Smile

Galaxies like our Milky Way, are gravitationally bound systems composed of stars, interstellar gas, dust, stellar relics, and dark matter. Dark matter is regarded as composed of exotic non-atomic particles that do not interact with light or any other form of electromagnetic radiation, which makes it invisible. However, most astronomers believe that it really exists in the Universe since it does interact gravitationally with objects which can be observed. Dark matter is a far more abundant form of matter compared to”ordinary” atomic matter that composes the Universe that we’re most familiar with.

The word galaxy itself is taken from the Greek galaxias, translated literally as “milky”. Galaxies can range in size from dwarfs that sponsor just a couple hundred million stars to galactic behemoths that contain an astounding one hundred trillion stellar inhabitants, each orbiting around its galaxy’s center of mass.

Relatively small, spherical, and closely bound collections of celebrities termed globular clusters are one of the most ancient objects in our Milky Way. The ages of individual stars in our Galaxy could be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238. Astronomers can then compare the results to estimates of their original abundance, by means of a technique termed nucleocosmochronology.

Several individual stars have been discovered in our Galaxy’s halo with ages measured very close to the 13.80-billion-year-old Universe. As the most ancient known item inhabiting our Milky Way at the moment, this dimension put a lower limit on our Galaxy’s age.

The era of stars dwelling from the Galactic thin disk was also estimated by astronomers with nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of stars inhabiting the thin disk indicate they were created roughly 8.8 billion years ago–give or take about 1.7 billion years. These measurements indicate that there was an interval of nearly 5 billion years between the creation of the Galactic halo and the thin disk. More recent studies of the chemical signatures of thousands of stars indicate that starbirth might have plummeted by an order of magnitude at the time of disc formation, 8 to 10 billion years ago, when interstellar gas was much too hot to give birth to new baby stars at precisely the same rate as before. Even though it seems counterintuitive, things have to get really cold for a fiery new stellar baby to be born.

Satellite galaxies surrounding our Milky Way aren’t dispersed randomly. Indeed, they appear to be the result of an early break-up of some larger system that produced a ring arrangement about 500,000 light-years in diameter and 50,000 light-years wide. Close and catastrophic encounters between galaxies tear off enormous tails of gas which, over time, can coalesce to make dwarf galaxies.

In November 2018, astronomers reported the discovery of the small tattle-tale star that’s one of the oldest inhabiting the Universe. This tiny star may also be one of the very first stars to be born in the Cosmos, and it is categorized as an ultra-metal-poor (UMP) star composed almost entirely of matter formed in the Big Bang. Astronomers refer to these stars that are depleted of heavy metals as low metallicity stars. “But this one has such low metallicity, its known as an ultra metal poor star–this star could be one in ten thousand,” Dr. Schlaufman commented in the November 5, 2018 Gemini Observatory Press Release.

2MASS J18082002-5104378 B

Really, this star’s location within our Milky Way’s disc –that is usually both crowded and extremely active–is a surprise.

2MASS J18082002-5104378 B is a member of a binary stellar system. It is the smaller companion of a low-metallicity celebrity observed in 2014 and 2015 from the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO’s) Very Large Telescope UT2. Before the discovery of the tiny tattle-tale star, astronomers had wrongly assumed that the binary system could host a stellar mass black hole or a neutron star. Stellar mass black holes and neutron stars are the relics that massive stars leave behind once they’ve gone supernova. From April 2016 to July 2017, Dr. Schlaufman and his colleagues used the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on the Gemini South telescope in Chile and the Magellan Clay Telescope located at Las Campanas Observatory, so as to study the stellar system’s light and measure its relative motions, like this discovering the small UMP by spotting its gravitational pull on its stellar partner.

“Gemini was critical for this discovery, as the elastic observing modes allowed weekly check-ins on the system over six months,” Dr. Schlaufman commented in the November 5, 2018 Gemini Observatory Press Release.

“Understanding the history of our own Galaxy is critical for humanity to comprehend the wider history of the whole Universe,” noted Dr. Chris Davis at the same Press Release. NSF Offers financing for the Gemini Observatory on behalf of the USA.

2MASS J18082002-5104378 B comprises approximately a mere 14 percent of the mass of our Sun which makes it a red dwarf star. Red dwarfs are also the most numerous stars inhabiting our Galaxy.

“Diminutive stars like these tend to shine for a very long time. This star has aged well. It looks precisely the same now as it did when it formed 13.5 billion years back,” Dr. Schlaufman stated in the November 5, 2018 Gemini Observatory Press Release.

The discovery of 2MASS J18082002-5104378 B is important since it provides astronomers with new hope for discovering more of those ancient stars which shed new light on what happened in the primordial Universe. Just about 30 UMPs have been identified so far. However, as Dr. Schlaufman concluded,”Observations such as these are paving the way to possibly one day finding that elusive first generation star.”

Judith E. Braffman-Miller is a writer and astronomer whose articles have been published since 1981 in various magazines, journals, and papers. Although she has written on a variety of topics, she especially loves writing about astronomy as it gives her the opportunity to communicate to others some of the numerous wonders of her field. Her first book,”Wisps, Ashes, and Smoke,” will be released soon.

Engineering, is it for you

Trinity College Dublin Ireland Building Hi

Maybe it’s not a million dollar question, but definitely, it is going to enable you to earn million dollars if you are smart enough to make a life-changing decision and find the right answer!

The world is digitized, organized, and united implementations of calculative ideas to enhance the innovations for better , so the value for skilled engineers will not fade in days to come. Therefore engineering is still the best career option.

In our everyday life, we constantly prefer a safe method to deal with many situations, and education is no different in this context. But, we always give special importance to the career-related decisions, getting to the intermediate instruction could be one of the best examples. We all know that higher education system needs transparency in every movement, but still, we give equal attention to intermediate study circle also, simply to upkeep the basic level education. But this kind of strategy is now moved to next level; as a consequence, our taste is more towards the reputed schools these days, and the instructional environment will help a student to build a strong base to perform well in higher studies.

Moreover, the higher education system is not different in comparison with lower grade studies. Whereas the choice of a college depends upon the placement track record of prior years and the current education standard of the institute, the best part is people are getting used to this type of process. But the means of thinking changes according to the time, and the surrounding environment. Thus, we can say that our tastes for the studies aren’t same as before, the majority of our decisions are now based on the current trend and the best choice to match our requirements.

Over the past ten years, engineering has been one of the top-rated career choices around the country. Big cities such as Bengaluru, Delhi, Pune, Hyderabad, and Chennai has generated the numerous job opportunities and provided a nest to several engineers. However, in last four years, the lack of jobs in engineering field has affected the budding engineers and prominence to the technology is decreasing. The abrupt downfall in employment is only a sign of lacking an excellent education, and the lack of required skills in a graduate, which are fundamental need to fulfill the industry standard.

“In present days, the technology jobs are skills pushed, so the companies will give prominence to the skills set rather than only academic performance.”

The change is unavoidable for a reason, if it confides a strong intent, then we must adapt it for a fruitful outcome. In precisely the same way, if you’re not sure about your decision of choosing engineer as a career path, then ask these questions to yourself, if you have the ability to answer them with no hiccups then you will be confident about your next move!

* Is that okay if you are surrounded by challenging atmosphere?
* Heartbreaks are typical in examinations, is that manageable for you?
* Days after engineering: You will get a job opportunity based on your abilities; grades might be just part of it
* The beginning: Selecting an engineering college is the newest challenge, how will you handle it?

The modern engineering education system has changed the way of teaching, and the students don’t rely on the faculty anymore, instead, they study independently and seek faculty help only when required. So the mindset of a pupil should welcome such practices.

Initial days of engineering would make you feel uneasy because of college environment, interaction with the lecturers, and the daily routine. It takes a while to adjust to the new beginning, and it is challenging for a student to understand how to take an individualistic decision in day-to-day life to deal with the new world.

Learning is not merely limited to the professors; you may need to appear beyond the eyesight to search for new opportunities to achieve the heights. The quick learning and adaption of new practices can help you to be a better person, and it’s a quality of powerful engineer however. If you are capable of accepting the challenges and confident enough to tackle the hurdles, then the engineering is the best career choice for you!

Choosing a college major

Library Books Bookshelf Education Literatu

Bear in mind that whatever subjects you select in college, you will need to spend a great deal of time studying it. So, it’s advisable to consider over it seriously. Normally, the best time to decide on your field of research is right before your 11th grade if you haven’t already.

Choosing a Specific Career Path

If you already know which career you are looking ahead to when you graduate, it becomes easier to pick your specialized area of study. However, before you decide that you want to go down that career path, look into the relevant discipline. Have a look at the syllabus and subjects you will need to take on.

Future Earning Potential

Pay scale may be a major factor for students who are planning to take out a loan for their schooling. Trying to pay it back while barely scratching, hardly makes sense when you have spent so much in college. That being said, your six-figure salary will not be worth it if you’re not pleased with the career path you have chosen for yourself.

Favourite Subjects

If there is a specific subject that you love, then it’s a fantastic indication that you have found your region of study. Proclivity for a topic can translate into better understanding of the subject matter and better grades. Eventually, you will be able to get into a job that really holds meaning for your own passion.

Explore Your Interests

If you are not sure about what you need to study, researching your underlying interests might help you to find what you’re looking for. Speak with your teachers and advisors that will help you find your best fit. Who knows? You may end up on the right track.

Double Major

If your knowledge for hunger is not appeased by one area of study, some universities also offer dual degrees. Make certain that you research about the university you are applying for and how much of a load it is going to be on you throughout the semesters.

In terms of the fear that you may lose interest in a subject halfway through, there’s always a possibility of altering your academic field. However, it may take you over the traditional four decades of study to earn your college degree due to the change of coursework and requisite subjects.